Well-equipped smuggling vessels, freighted with brandy, claret, laces, and silks, consequently plied to the coasts of Kerry, Clare, and Connaught, having Irish officers, and occasionally friars, on board, speaking the old language, which was still that of far the greater part of the country, and possessing a proportionable influence with their countrymen. For these arrivals from France, cargoes of wool were returned, accompanied by suitable numbers of hardy recruits, whose periodical emigrations were fancifully styled, ‘the flights of the wild geese.’
According to estimates, stated to be deduced from the Bureau de la Guerre, or War Office of France, between the troops of the Irish regiments in her service, and the Irish in other corps of the French army, from October, 1691, to May, 1745, or, from the Treaty of Limerick, to the battle of Fontenoy, those military exiles amounted to above 450,000.
The first service appointed for most of the Irish troops after their reorganisation in France in 1692, was an expedition to England. That invasion was concerted between James II and Louis XIV, as equally for the interest of both; of the former, as the means of effecting his ‘restoration’ and of the latter, as his best resource against the League of Augsburg; unless William, its chief, could be dethroned, then that great confederacy would be stronger than ever, from his being enabled, by the Treaty of Limerick, to employ, on the Continent against France, so many of the regular force of 67 regiments, absorbed, by the last year’s war, in Ireland.
The ‘Armé de Normandie’ for James’s service, was, including his household and officers, to consist of 30,000 men, with 50 guns. Of these, the Irish – as exclusive of the three Regiments of Mountcashel’s Brigade, and the Regiment of Athlone, appointed to serve elsewhere – would amount, in round numbers, to 12,400 infantry, and 800 cavalry, or above 13,200 men and officers. The whole were to be commanded, under the King (James), by the veteran Marshal de Bellefonds, to whom Patrick Sarsfield, Earl of Lucan, was Marshal de Camp, or Major-General. (Some 300 transport ships were gathered for the invasion.)